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On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company along with the Nayak of Kalahasti Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, the Military administrator under Vijayanagar Emperor travelled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya Post independence the fort housed the Tamil Nadu Assembly until the new Secretariat building was opened in 2010, but shortly afterwards it was again moved back to Fort St. By the 18th century, the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil Nadu and the northern modern–day states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, establishing the Madras Presidency with Madras as the capital.
With the advent of railways in India in the 19th century, the thriving urban centre was connected to other important cities such as Bombay and Calcutta, promoting increased communication and trade with the hinterland.
Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period.
Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have also been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas.
Sandy areas are found along the river banks and coasts, and include areas such as Tiruvottiyur, George Town, Madhavaram, New Washermanpet, Chepauk, Mylapore, Porur, Adyar, Besant Nagar and Uthandi.
Its average elevation is around 6.7 metres (22 ft), Chennai is 2,184 kilometres (1,357 mi) south of Delhi, 1,337 kilometres (831 mi) southeast of Mumbai, and 345 kilometres (214 mi) east of Bangalore by road.Two major rivers flow through Chennai, the Cooum River (or Koovam) through the centre and the Adyar River to the south.A third river, the Kortalaiyar, travels through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the Bay of Bengal, at Ennore.The violent agitations of 1965 against the compulsory imposition of Hindi and in support of English in India in the state marked a major shift in the political dynamics of the city and eventually it had a big impact on the whole state.
Because of Madras and its people, English now exists in India, otherwise Hindi might have been made the sole official language in India.
The estuary of this river is heavily polluted with effluents released by the industries in the region.